Article Number and Quality of Plant Production
Plants both growth and production are influenced by two factors, namely genetics and the environment in which they grow. To get good growth, both factors must be in optimum condition. Likewise with production, the quantity and quality of crop production will be maximum if the two main factors are in optimum condition. Mathematically, agricultural experts often express the relationship between the appearance of plants with genetic and environmental factors in an equation P = G + E, where P is the appearance of plants (phenotipic), G is genetic and E is the environment (Environment). If one of the two factors is not optimum, then the growth and yield of the plant will not be maximum.
Genetic factors are related to biodiversity (biodiversity). According to Mardiastuti (1999), the notion of biodiversity is the abundance of various types of biological and natural research resources (plants and animals) on (Machineryexporters Resources) found on the face of the earth. The higher the biodiversity, the more abundant the available choices. Thus, if biodiversity is high, then we can choose to get the best plants.
Our ability to choose this plant has consequences for the final results we will reap. If the genetic makeup of the selected plant is good and in accordance with its environment, so is the good appearance of the plant. Conversely, if the selection of plant genes is poor, the appearance will be poor as well.
The existence of genetic factors in their function of plant phenotypes is single, that is, only the composition of genes is present in these plants. Nothing more and nothing less. Conversely, the existence of environmental factors is plural. These environmental factors can be in the form of a biotic environment and also an abiotic environment.
Biotic environment can be in the form of pests, diseases, and weeds. There are many types of pests from large ones such as pigs (humans are also included) to very small ones, such as mites. Likewise, diseases, many and varied in number. Weed is no less diverse. The existence of these biotic creatures is generally negative. That is, its presence brings harm to plant growth and yield. Exceptions are in certain types of microorganisms such as rhizobium, mycorrhizae, and a few other types.
Abiotic environment can be divided into microclimate and soil conditions (plant growing media). This microclimate has a lot of elements. According to Encyclopedia Britannica (2012), microclimate is a climatic condition in a relatively narrow region, a few meters or less above and below the surface of the soil and in the vegetation canopy. Conditions depend on temperature, humidity, wind and turbulence, dew, snow, heat and evaporation. It seems, there is forgetfulness, not the sunlight. Though sunlight or solar radiation is the main climate element.
According to Haris 1999, the intensity of solar radiation directly influences changes in other microclimate elements.
The condition of the soil or where plants grow is also plural. There are at least 3 constituent elements, namely nutrients, water, and air. According to UmassAmherst (2012) growing media consists of a mixture of materials that provide water, air and nutrients and also support plants. Furthermore, nutrients and their availability in the soil are very complex and are influenced by many variables, such as structure, texture, colloids, humidity, pH, cations, anions, and soil microorganisms.
To predict the amount and quality that can be taken from a plant, all the factors that influence the growth of the plants above can be used.
The problem is, the number of factors that affect the phenotype of the plant is enormous. The equation model P = G + E above, if we break down can become P = G + E1 + E2 + E3 + … + En, where n is the number of members of a very large number of environmental factors. With so many variables, predicting activities becomes very difficult and may also be less useful. In order to be useful, then there should not be too many predictor variables. Gratitude can only be one predictor variable. For this reason, it is necessary to “find” a few strong variables from the many factors that affect plant phenotypes.
In terms of statistics, the choice of predictor variables can be seen from the type of variable.
There are 2 types of variables, namely qualitative and quantitative. Quantitative variables are better used to predict than qualitative variables. According to Suriasumantri (1999), quantitative variables can produce more precise and more careful conclusions. Thus the first step is to collect quantitative variables and get rid of qualitative variables from the model. According to Sudjana (1994), the characteristic of quantitative (continuous) variables is that these variables can be measured by means.
Article Number and Quality of Plant Production