Type of Material in Main Structure

Type of Material in Main Structure
When we want to design a structure, we need to consider building system integration in the design of the structure. What is the Building System Integration? these are things that need to be considered when we are going to design a building, such as building arrangements, transportation systems, lighting systems, etc.
These aspects need to be considered because they are very important for the building, both during the process of the implementation phase until the next stage the building will be used. If there is no good integration of building systems, things that may be unwanted by the parties involved such as project delays, or other problems that can arise during the service period of the structure.
To be more clear, we can see in the picture below, what is meant about the integration of structural systems (Maconlesstner Literature Reviews):
From the picture above and besides it appears that when we are going to design a building, of course it is very important to consider the factors that appear in the picture such as the influence of the weather, the influence of vehicles or objects or activities around the building.
All of these things will give effect to the structure that we build, ranging from small influences to large influences.
The basic criteria that need to be considered include:
Structural Materials: Structural materials can be divided into four (4) categories including:
Wood Structure
Wood structure is a structure with sufficient resistance, weaknesses of this material are not resistant to fire, and the presence of weathering hazards. Therefore this material is only used in low-rise buildings.
B. Steel Structures
The steel structure is very suitable for use in high-rise buildings because steel material has high strength and high ductility when compared to other structural materials.
C. Concrete Structures
Concrete structures are widely used in medium to high rise buildings. This structure is most widely used when compared to other structures because this structure is more monolithic and has a fairly long life span.
d. Composite Structure
This structure is a combination of two or more types of material. In general what is often used is a combination of structural steel with reinforced concrete. The combination makes the composite structure has structural behavior between steel structures and reinforced concrete structures. Composite structures are used for medium to high rise buildings.
Upper and Lower Structures
When I was in college, I was given an assignment like this, which is to explain the understanding and components of the upper and lower structure, who knows, you will also be given the same assignment.
Definition of Upper Structure
The structure of a building is all parts of the building structure which are above the ground level. This upper structure consists of columns, plates, beams and shear walls, each of which has a very important role.
Components – Upper Structus Building 1. Column
Column is a component that has an important role in a building. The collapse in the column is the most critical location that can cause collapse in the building. The function of the column is to continue the burden of the entire building to the foundation. The column includes the main structure to carry the weight of the building and other burdens such as live load and wind load. The function column is very important, so that the building does not collapse easily.
The structure in the column is made of iron and concrete. Both are a combination of a material that is resistant to pull and pressure. Iron is a tensile resistant material, while concrete is a pressure resistant material.
The combination of these two materials in a concrete structure allows the column or other structural parts such as sloof and beam to withstand the force.
A. Working Principles of Columns
Column structural elements that have comparative values between length and cross-sectional dimensions are relatively small called short columns. Short column load-bearing capacity does not depend on the length of the column and when overloaded, the short column will generally fail due to material destruction. Thus, the limit load-bearing capacity depends on the strength of the material used. The longer a compressed element, the relative proportion of elements will change until it reaches a state called the slim element.
The behavior of the slim element is very different from the short press element. The behavior of a long compressive element to a compressive load is that if the load is small, the element can still maintain its linear shape, as well as if the load is increasing. When the load reaches a certain value, the element suddenly becomes unstable and changes shape.
This is what made the phenomenon of buckling (buckling) if a structural element (in this case is a column) has bent, then the column does not have the ability to accept additional burdens. A slight increase in load will cause the structural elements to collapse. Thus, the load bearing capacity for the structural elements of the column is the amount of load that causes the column to experience initial bending. Structures that have been bent have no more service abilities.
The buckling phenomenon is a variety of failures caused by the instability of a structural element that is affected by load action. Failure caused by instability can occur in various materials. When bending occurs, the level of internal force can be very low. The buckling phenomenon is related to the rigidity of structural elements. An element that has a small stiffness is easier to experience bending than compared to a which has a large stiffness. The longer a structural element, the smaller the stiffness.
Many factors affect the buckling load (Pcr) on a long compressive structural element. These factors are as follows:
Column Length
In general, the column load-bearing capacity is inversely proportional to the square length of the element. In addition, other factors that determine the amount of buckling load are those related to the structural stiffness characteristics (material type, shape, and cross-section size). Rigidity
The stiffness of structural elements is strongly influenced by the amount of material and its distribution. In rectangular structural elements, structural elements will always bend in the direction as illustrated in under section (a). However, the symmetrical shape (for example rectilinear or circle) does not have a special bending direction like a rectangular cross section. The size of the material distribution (shape and cross-section size) in this case can generally be expressed by the moment of inertia (I).
Edge Element Conditions
If the ends of the column are free to rotate, the column has a smaller load-bearing capability than the same column with the ends clamped. The existence of end resistance increases stiffness thereby also increasing stability which prevents buckling. Curbing (using bracing) a column in a direction also increases rigidity. The bending phenomenon generally causes a reduction in compressive load-bearing capacity. The maximum load that can be carried short columns is determined by the destruction of the material, not bending.